Excitonium, un nuevo estado de la materia – República Positiva

Excitonium, un nuevo estado de la materia

Hace medio siglo que se habla de él, pero no fue sino hasta ahora cuando se confirma su existencia. El excitonium es una nueva forma de materia que se forma por un electrón y un hueco, una forma peculiar de bosón. Su condición permite usarle como un conductor fluido para mejorar los procesos físicos.

El hallazgo es gracias al profesor de Física Peter Abbamonte y los estudiantes de posgrado Anshul Kogar y Mindy Rak, con la colaboración de colegas de Illinois, la Universidad de California, Berkeley y la Universidad de Ámsterdam.

En la década de 1960, el físico teórico de Harvard, Bert Halperin, fue quien teorizó y acuñó el término por primera vez en la historia.

De acuerdo a una publicación de Muyinteresante.es, El excitonium es un condensado compuesto de excitones, lo que significa que los investigadores detectaron que era un sólido. Este peculiar emparejamiento cuántico-mecánico de electrones y los huecos que dejaron es posible porque, en semiconductores, los electrones en el borde de un nivel de energía en un átomo pueden, cuando están excitados, saltar al siguiente nivel de energía, dejando atrás un “agujero” en el nivel anterior.

Este agujero actúa como una partícula cargada positivamente, atrayendo el electrón cargado negativamente que escapó. Así, se orbitan unos a otros de la misma forma que un electrón y un protón.

Para demostrar la existencia de excitones, los científicos estudiaron los cristales no dopados del diseleniuro de dicalcogenuro de titanio de metal de transición (1T-TiSe2) y reprodujeron los resultados cinco veces en diferentes cristales escindidos, por separado.

Durante los intentos anteriores no se había logrado distinguir entre la formación de excitones y los procesos superficialmente parecidos. Para llevar a cabo el nuevo experimento, los físicos desarrollaron una nueva tecnología espectroscópica, mucho más sensible a las partículas cargadas.

“Desde que el término ‘excitonium’ fue acuñado en la década de 1960 por el físico teórico de la Universidad de Harvard Bert Halperin, los físicos han intentado demostrar su existencia. Los teóricos han debatido si sería un aislante, un conductor perfecto o un superfluido, con algunos argumentos convincentes por todos lados”, continúa.

Ahora que se ha demostrado su existencia y se ha observado concretamente en la experimentación, pueden explorarse sus propiedades y valorar sus posibles aplicaciones.


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